Sunday, December 3, 2017

Who owns stock in America?

How to quote
Last, First M. "Article Title." Newspaper Title [City] Date Month Year Published: Page(s).

Viser, M. and Rppeport, A. "Populist words not matched by deeds." Boston Globe 12/3/2017. Pages A1, A6.

Thursday, November 23, 2017

Carbon Pricing

     Massachusetts has to reduce emissions from the fossil fuels, oil, coal and gas. These emissions cause global warming. We are facing a deadline we will not meet. The 2008 Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reduced emissions. The goal for 2020 is 25% less than the 1990 level. It is unlikely we can meet that deadline.
     We are also behind in meeting the deadline for 2050. That deadline is an 80% reduction in emissions from fossil fuels. Other countries use a plan called "carbon pollution pricing". This plan is reducing global warming pollution emissions around the world.
     The state legislature is proposing two bills on carbon pricing. Senator Mike Barret is the sponsor of bill S.1821. Representative Jennifer Benson is the sponsor of the second bill, H.1726. Altogether, there are 79 sponsors. That would be almost a quarter of the legislature.
     These bills put a tax on coal, oil or gas that is imported into Massachusetts. The state would rebate all or part of the revenues back to state residents and businesses. Everyone would get an incentive to reduce fossil fuel use in order to keep more of their rebates.
    One of the bills would set aside some of the revenues for a Green Infrastructure Fund. This bill would help municipalities pay for energy efficiency, clean energy, and climate resiliency projects. These bills would reduce air pollution. Bay State residents would be healthier.
    Each year Massachusetts spends over 20 billion dollars on fossil fuels. Both bills would help us keep more of that $20 billion.  Eventually we will grow our own renewable energy businesses. That means more good jobs for our residents.
     Governor Baker recently voiced his support for the Paris Accord. His key interest is the emissions reductions targets. Most economists agree that putting a price on carbon pollution is the single most effective way to help us meet those targets. It would encourage shifting to cleaner, more reliable renewable energy systems.  We do not have time to wait. Let us put a price on carbon pollution now.

Fair Taxes - How money is distributed in USA

Distribution of Wealth

Wealth inequality in the United States. In Wikepedia retrieved 11/23/17, from

One person pays $40
19 pay $2.80
80 pay $0.09

More recently, in 2017, an Oxfam study found that eight rich people, six of them Americans, own as much combined wealth as half the human race.[10][11][12]

     What is a fair way to assess taxes? Suppose a company of 100 people goes out for holiday coffee. These people represent how America's wealth is distributed. They decide to split the bill according to how much wealth they have. Assume the total bill was $100. One person would pay $40. Nineteen would pay $2.80. The remaining 80 would pay only $.09 each.

     Reference information came from Wikipedia, Wealth inequality in the United States.

Sunday, November 12, 2017


Jay Morrison
Nov 11 (1 day ago)

to me
Hi Steve,  I called you as a part of EMIT (End Mass Incarceration Together).  The Senate already passed an "omnibus" bill on October 27th.  The House bill is not as strong as the Senate bill, so we are asking that people call Lori not only to support the H.4011, but also amendments to that bill as well. The house debate is scheduled to start on Monday 11/13, but I don't know if they will get to it by then. Lori's phone is 617-722-2810 and email:  Thanks for your interest! Jay Morrison

Thursday, November 9, 2017

How an Idea Becomes a Law

SUBJECT: Civics. History or Government

TITLE: How Citizens Can Influence What Laws Are Passed
(This lesson gives students a chance to use what they learned about government)


  1. Learn the steps in how laws are made
  2. Learn how to use the hearings and events website
  3. Learn how to find my legislator


How an Idea Becomes a Law
Below is an explanation of how an idea becomes a law in Massachusetts.

Step 1: Proposal

Step 2: Petition is filed

Step 3: Hearing is Held and Testimony Heard
The committee holds a public hearing and hears testimony regarding the petition from the public, government officials and office holders. After the hearing is held, the committee issues a report recommending whether the petition “ought to pass”, “ought not to pass”, be subject to further study or discharged to another committee.

Hearings and Events

Sunday, November 5, 2017

Wednesday, November 1, 2017

three for governor

Setti Warren

Bob Massie

Jay Gonzalez

fletcher method

Letter to President Gentile About Student Involvement at NSCC

Steven Levy, BS Mechanical Engineering, MBA
26 Sagamore Road, Marblehead, MA 01945-2129

October 31, 2017

Patricia A. Gentile, Ed.D., President
North Shore Community College
1 Ferncroft Road
Danvers, MA 01923

Subject: Student Involvement Civics Project

Dear President Gentile,

Is there a teacher at your school who would be interested in a civics project on legislation?

Student Benefits:
  • Learn about government
  • Feel empowered, become involved with the governance process
  • More likely to vote
  • Help the school and other students

What the students could do:
  • Pick bills they would like to promote, possibly bills about education
  • Write emails, make calls
  • Attend a hearing locally or the statehouse, give testimony
  • Visit their representative and/or senator

My background:
  • Registering new voters at NSCC
  • Active in environmental work
  • Give testimony and lobby for bills at the state house
  • Former engineer and teacher
  • Give brief talks to students about the importance of voting
  • GED tutor and teacher in math

I could help them with each step.


Steven Levy

Monday, October 30, 2017

MA Bill S.2088 Free Community Colleges

Joint Committee on Higher Education

(Senate) Bill S.2088 An Act making community colleges in Massachusetts free for residents of the state  Link to State Site for bill.

Bill Sponsor: Michael O. Moore (email:
Senator Michael O. Moore, Democrat - Second Worcester

State House:
24 Beacon Street, Room 109-B, Boston, MA, 02133
Phone: 617-722-1485 Fax: 617-722-1066

District Office:
36 North Quinsigamond Avenue, Shrewsbury, MA 01545
Phone: (508) 757-0323 x 13

Referred to Joint Committee on Higher Education, Worcester, MA
Proposal for free community college to get hearing on Beacon Hill
By Scott O’Connell, Telegram & Gazette Staff, Posted Jul 10, 2017

  • Funding is an issue
  • It needs more study
  • There are no co-signers
  • a House version of the bill was filed by state Rep. Carmine Gentile
  • No one has testified on behalf of the bill
(House Bill) H.633 By Mr. Gentile of Sudbury, a petition (accompanied by bill, House, No. 633) of Carmine L. Gentile and others for legislation to make public higher education free for residents of the Commonwealth. Higher Education.

RI just made community college free. Here’s what you need to know
By Susan Campbell, August 7, 2017, 5:15 pm  Updated: August 7, 2017
  • Called the "Promise Scholarship Program"
  • 20% boost in attendance
  • Pays for community college
  • Under 19 when completing high school

Thursday, October 26, 2017

Time to Replace Fossil Fuels with Solar and Wind

It Is Time to Replace Fossil Fuels with Solar and Wind Energy

October 26th, 2017. I went to the state house today to testify in favor of Bill H2698. The H means it is a House of Representative piece of legislation. The bill was presented by Kenneth I. Gordon from the 21st Middlesex district (Burlington). The hearing was conducted by the "Joint Committee on Telecommunications, Utilities and Energy". The bill is "An Act protecting ratepayers from gas pipeline expansion costs". That means if the gas company needs a pipeline, they pay for it not us.

My comments to the committee were of a general nature:

I have a seventeen-year-old car. Everyone who sees it asks "When you getting another car?" It needs more work that it is worth.

The natural gas industry is in need of too much work. According to the Environmental Defense Fund, some of the pipes in Boston are over 50 years old. The pipes leak. Leaking gas is an environmental problem. Methane is 25 times better at trapping heat than carbon dioxide. Burning natural gas emits carbon dioxide and toxic chemicals that are poisoning living things and cooking the planet.

It time to trade in that aging fossil fuel technology for something new and exciting. Denmark gets half its electric energy from wind turbines. Italy gets 8% of its energy from solar power. These new technologies are cheaper and cleaner. Wind and solar power are creating many local jobs that we need.

Tuesday, October 24, 2017

Setti Warren visits Marblehead


Our population is aging. Keeping people walking is vital. When people loose the ability to walk, they are more likely to have medical expenses. Loss of mobility negatively effects work and home life. Good sidewalks are essential for pedestrians. In the winter, they can become impassible and dangerous.

Maintaining sidewalks is not an easy job. Tree roots push up the sidewalk and make it uneven. These pushed up areas can trip people and cause them to fall. I would like to see the town invest a little more in keeping sidewalks flat especially on the main streets. It would be a nice demonstration of community spirit if people would voluntarily clear and de-ice sidewalks during the winter.

Wednesday, October 18, 2017

keep walking

Keep Them Walking!

long-term degenerative, death of cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain,
Parkinson's disease is essentially a clinical diagnosis

Cost effectiveness of preventing falls and improving mobility in people with Parkinson disease: protocol for an economic evaluation alongside a clinical trial

One study has estimated that 27% of people with PD will sustain a hip fracture in the first 10 years following diagnosis of PD

Resource use and costs in a Swedish cohort of patients with Parkinson's disease.
The mean total annual cost for PD in our sample approximated SEK 124,000 ( approximately USD 12,400; 2000
The current and projected economic burden of Parkinson's disease in the United States

We estimate that approximately 630,000 people in the United States had diagnosed PD in 2010, with diagnosed prevalence likely to double by 2040.

 The national economic burden of PD exceeds $14.4 billion in 2010 (approximately $22,800 per patient). Indirect costs (e.g., reduced employment) are conservatively estimated at $6.3 billion (or close to $10,000 per person with PD). 400 million for mass.
The Lancet Neurology
Volume 4, Issue 12, December 2005, Pages 815-820
Journal home page for The Lancet Neurology
Fast track — Articles
Prevalence of movement disorders in men and women aged 50–89 years (Bruneck Study cohort): a population-based study
(from 18·5% [15·0–22·0] in 50–59-year olds to 51·3% [44·9–57·7] in 80–89-year olds).


  1. weakness one side
  2. both sides
  3. difficulty walking
  4. terrible falls
Do dopamine in brain

Drugs will help, for a while

10 years to live, or maybe no effect

What I do?
  • Vegan, no meat
  • Walking, stopped driving, public transportation
  • Boxing 5-6 days
Why boxing?

Ruth saw interview with leslie stahl. Her husband has it.

It's reducing the tremors in my left hand. Less tripping.

Teaching your brain to work faster. Strength training.

Straifing. Always know where my feet are. Demonstration.

Social aspect

3) What I want you to do?

Keep walking
If you know someone with movement issues, take them for a walk.
Walk and talk.
Whole foods shopping, talking, small carts
Encourage people to join an activity.
Social is important.

Neurology Today
Ivan Bodis-Wollner, M.D., the director of the Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders Clinic Center of Excellence at the State University of New York at the Downstate Medical Center, believes that dance therapy helps because it works the body as a whole, not as an isolated muscle group. In addition to feeling support from the group and from feeling better from doing exercise—which in itself produces dopamine, Dr. Bodis-Wollner says—there's another benefit as well.

Movement disorders are clinical syndromes with either an excess of movement or a paucity of voluntary and involuntary movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity

Friday, October 13, 2017

Health Care Innovation


Total population (2015) 5,669,000
Gross national income per capita (PPP international $, 2013) 44
Life expectancy at birth m/f (years, 2015) 79/82
Probability of dying under five (per 1 000 live births, 0) not available
Probability of dying between 15 and 60 years m/f (per 1 000 population, 2015) 88/54
Total expenditure on health per capita (Intl $, 2014) 4,782
Total expenditure on health as % of GDP (2014) 10.8


Here's the Article:
Our leadership in Washington is continuing their attack on health care. We should ignore them as much as possible. Massachusetts has few natural resources. If we want to thrive, we need to attract growth tech industries. We will. When I walk around Boston, it feels like something exciting is happening. We have a concentration of well-educated people with diverse backgrounds. This is a recipe for growth and innovation.

However, health care costs are a drag on our competiveness. Denmark which is about the same in population spends about half what we spend. Even if the federal government leaves the Affordable Health Care Act unchanged, we still have a problem. We are an innovative state! It is time for use to take health care to the next level.

Monday, October 9, 2017

Good News About Gas Leaks, Oct 3

Hearing good environmental news is always wonderful. On October 3, 2017, I attended the Gas Leak Allies summit on "Common Goals, Uncommon Partners" at the MIT Sloan School Wong Auditorium in Cambridge. The Gas Leaks Allies are a coalition of activists, researchers, utility executives, municipal leaders, natural gas experts, inventors, and concerned citizens. Mothers Out Front and the Gas Leak Allies sponsored the meeting.

The Gas Leak Allies are finding solutions for the gas-leaking pipelines buried in our neighborhoods. They are making real progress. The summit highlighted their persistent effort in learning how to work together, collecting data and solving technical problems. In a time when people seem to be polarized, it is nice to see real progress in solving difficult problems.

Wednesday, September 27, 2017

ACLU Lobby Day

Guides and signs. Excellent registration. Back not needed. Coffee good. Lunch ok. Huge cookie is over kill. Need more sugar free or low sugar drinks. Elected officials were ready to talk with us. Nice work!

Tuesday, September 26, 2017

Friday, September 22, 2017

RPS Rally 9/19/17

   Note: RPS = (Renewable Portfolio Standard)

   On Tuesday, September 19, I attended a rally for the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS). I learned about the event from an organizer at 350, Andy Gordon. I am a member of 350 Northshore. My plan was to go to the hearings for House bill 2700 on RPS and the $15 per hour wage. I thought this would be a good way to show my support and maybe interview people. I never got into either hearing because the rooms were too small. There must have been over 150 people there for each meeting. Many people were in the hallway talking.
   In case you are wondering, the Renewable Portfolio Standard requires utility companies to buy electricity from clean energy at a steadily increasing amount. Right now, that total increases by 1% every year. To ensure that the state gets to 100% renewable energy by 2050, the rate of increase must change to 3% increase every year.
   At 11:45 AM about 100 people from over a dozen groups gathered for a group photo on the State House steps. (See picture) Before and after the photo was taken, I interviewed people from around the state.
   On the $15 per hour wage increase, I spoke with the co-owner of Fresh Food Generation in Dorchester, Jason Renshaw. He supports the $15 dollar hourly wage because he needs workers who can work hard and solve problems. A living wage will help make that a reality.
  The rest of the time, I spent talking with people about RPS, the Renewable Portfolio Standard. Stephen Malagodi, from Lowell, wanted to see more than a 3% increase per year. Originally, from Miami, he has seen first hand how the climate is changing and the damage it is causing.
   Lucy Robinson, a member of Climate Action Now, would like the state retirement funds to reduce their investment in fossil fuels. Connie Gurfinkle, a Hull member of, said a rally is a good way to show support.
   Emily Norton, Sierra Club, Massachusetts Chapter Director, would like to see 50% renewables by 2030. New York, Connecticut and Rhode Island are making good progress. As State Director for Environment Massachusetts, Ben Hellerstein, supports persistent efforts.
   Andy Bean from Community Choice Energy for Boston, likes the idea of cities determining what type of energy sources they use. Jack Spense, a 350 member from Brookline thinks we need to shift investments away from pipelines and toward renewables. Alan Palm, 350 Belmont, recommends more climate education.
  Cassie Coveney, Salem State University Student and member of MASSPIRG, came to the event to do what she could to fight climate change. Jim Mulloy, a member of 350 Northshore, summed it up saying "Let's fix the climate!"

   At 2 PM, I was waiting in line, and no one was coming out. I went across the street to a place called Fill-a-buster. What a great name. I had a coffee. The broiled chicken lunch for $7.50 looked huge. I walked down the hill towards the Aquarium Blue Line station. Along the way I discovered, the Boston Public Market. The free sample of chocolate croissant was delicious. All in all, it was a pretty good day.

Tuesday, September 12, 2017

Tuesday, August 29, 2017

high blood pressure is the most common disease.
58% older adults have it. 65+
The number of Americans ages 65 and older is projected to more than double from 46 million today to over 98 million by 2060, and the 65-and-older age group’s share of the total population will rise to nearly 24 percent from 15 percent.
About 70 percent of adults over the age of 65 in the U.S. have high blood pressure, and only about half have their condition under control (defined as blood pressure under 140/90 mmHg). About one in six people with hypertension over 65 are unaware they have the condition, and one in 4 are not receiving treatment.
 In the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, nearly half of hypertensive patients in the community-based sample were found to be taking no prescription medication, and only one quarter of those who were being treated had their blood pressure adequately controlled.
In the United States, the estimated direct and indirect costs of nonadherence totaled $337 billion in 2013, the most recent year for which figures are available. With total healthcare spending in the United States averaging $9,255 per person in 2013, about one dollar of every nine spent was wasted because patients didn’t take their medicines as directed.

Thursday, July 27, 2017

Health Care 1 gdp

MA =  507 B / 2.75%
MA = 2.4%

Monday, May 22, 2017

Mass-Care’s- Single Payer Health Care System

Mass-Care’s mission is to establish a Single Payer Health Care System in Massachusetts so that all residents of the Commonwealth will have access to comprehensive, quality, affordable and equitable health care because it is basic to life and human dignity. Mass-Care was launched in 1995 as a coalition of Massachusetts organizations sharing a deep concern about the inequities of our health care system.

Center for Health Information and Analysis (CHIA)

Center for Health Information and Analysis (CHIA) link

Two things distinguish CHIA in our pursuit of improving the Massachusetts health care system: our public-interest perspective, and our unique data sets. Our perspective is rooted in our independence – our agenda and findings are not colored by the special interests of industry or politics – and in the talents and commitment of CHIA employees.

Health Policy Commission

Health Policy Commission link

The Massachusetts Health Policy Commission (HPC) is an independent state agency that develops policy to reduce health care cost growth and improve the quality of patient care. The HPC's mission is to advance a more transparent, accounta

Thursday, May 11, 2017

single payer health care, email:, phone: 312-782-6006, fax: 312-782-6007

Mass-Care, Website:, E-mail:
Emily Henkels,

I worked as a data analyst for Massachusetts Behavioral Health Partnership, BCBS and MA DPH. I create videos and give talks about public policy. My phone number is 781-771-2779. My videos are at

I would like to give talks about single payer health care to groups on the North Shore. I am active in the Marblehead Democratic Town Committee and

Do you have a conference call or a newsletter? Sign me up!

Wednesday, May 10, 2017

voter choice elevator speech

Ranked Choice is a change to the way that we vote. In our current system, you pick one candidate.
With Ranked Choice Voting, you vote for multiple candidates, in the order that you prefer them:

1st choice, 2nd choice, 3rd choice, and so on. This solves a very big problem in our elections -- that’s the problem of vote-splitting and spoiler candidates.

Under our current system, you may want to vote for a less popular candidate, but by doing so, you risk throwing your vote away. You might even also help to elect a candidate you don’t like, because you are not voting for a front-runner who can beat them.

With Ranked Choice Voting, you can vote for a less popular candidate as your first choice, and vote for a front-runner as a backup choice. If your first choice doesn’t have enough support, your vote transfers to your second choice. This means you never throw your vote away. Your vote stays intact, and is never wasted.

Ranked Choice Voting allows you to vote your honest preferences. Under Ranked Choice Voting, no candidate can split the vote or become a spoiler, because voters can always vote 2nd, 3rd, or more choices as backup, so votes stay consolidated among candidates who are similar.

Thursday, April 27, 2017

Voter Choice - Ranked Choice Voting

Seema Mathur, Voter Choice MA, 508-614-5702,
Tuesday May 9th @ 6:30pm - 8pm
Address: 14 Beacon St, #604, Boston, MA 02108

- Read all informational pages on the VCMA website.
- Read and become familiar with all the items in our promo kit.
- Begin reviewing Adam's presentation deck. This is what we will train on.

I'll be sending you the RCV elevator pitch (and maybe some other items) sometime in the next 2-3 days.

Adam Friedman :: Executive Director
Voter Choice Massachusetts

Democratic Platform

Every four years the Democratic Party adopts a platform as we go into gubernatorial elections. In addition to the official hearings conducted by the Platform Committee of the state party, Democratic Town and City/Ward Committees, DSC members and Democratic organizations may conduct platform meetings prior to the 2017 Democratic State Convention on June 3rd. The purpose of these meetings is to facilitate dialogue and encourage input from Democrats on the local level to inform the party platform hat will be voted on by delegates at the June convention. 

Thursday, April 13, 2017

Rotary Talk on Carbon Pricing 2017/2/17

Title 1
Marblehead Harbor Rotary Club
Masons Lodge, 62 Pleasant Street
April 18, 2017,

Presentation by
Steven Levy,

Title 2
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Charges: AKA Carbon Pricing, Carbon Fee and Dividend, Carbon Tax

Adaptation Topics
1 - Gulf of Maine
2 - Carbon Pricing Legislation
3 - Possible Outcomes

It's Like Selling Life Insurance, Only Worse

The Gulf of Maine
Gulf of Maine Image
Found on the english Wikipedia Image :GulfofMaine.jpg. Digital bathymetry map of the Gulf of Maine. Credit: National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Woods Hole, MA Labels by Syagria.)  Digital bathymetry map of the Gulf of Maine. Credit: National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Woods Hole, MA. Labels by Syagria.

Water Temperature in the Gulf of Maine
"Warming waters a major factor in Gulf of Maine cod collapse" by NOAA Research

Temperature is rising 15 times faster in the Gulf of Maine than the rest 

of the ocean.

Analysis of a Carbon Fee or Tax as a Mechanism to Reduce GHG Emissions in Massachusetts

Friday, March 31, 2017

Carbon Tax Reference

I spoke with Cindy Luppi; she is ready and eager to meet with us in person or by phone so as to prep and answer questions. She points out that Massachusetts sends $20 Billion out of state each year for our energy needs. Shouldn't we discourage these payments and work on home grown energy sources?

The bills:
There are two bills that have been filed:  In the Senate SD 1021. In the house House HD 1504. They​ both  put a gradually rising fee on fossil fuels from all sectors (except the major electricity producers which fall under the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI)).  Monies are returned to households and businesses to protect them from price increases. Both bills make a special effort to protect low income households that are most vulnerable to price changes. The bill sponsors are Sen. Michael Barrett of Lexington and Rep. Jen Benson of Lunenburg​. They differ somewhat: The Senate bill is a  neutral simple fee - everyone gets a check in the mail! -  and appeals to conservatives (is more likely to pass?). The House bill returns 80% of the money collected but uses 20% for  (not clear on details here)

Look for this:
On april 27, the Boston Foundation has paid for a study and will issue that study showing the benefits of carbon pricing in terms of smog reduction; it will estimate the health benefits of carbon pricing.

Reaching out to Lynners: Let's write a note to Lynners we know, acquainting them with carbon pricing and the bills and urging them to add to our numbers. David suggested to Jeff Barz Snell that he come as a man of the cloth, wondering whether we can reach out to ECCO people or Neighbor to Neighbor people.

Cindy Luppi logistics:
 I hate to have her schlep up here although she is willing. She will be at SSU giving a talk at 12:30 on Monday April 10 in the MLK room of the Ellison Center. What is your preference? Should we schedule a phone chat?

PS Judith will be doing a session at SSC Earth Days on Friday April 14 also in the  MLK room of the Ellison Center. (SSU has a week of earthdays with movies and panel discussions. )

Tuesday, March 21, 2017

Carbon Dioxide 170321

Carbon Dioxide forecast. 170321


Reference: Data from Earth Systems Research Laboratory
 See for additional details.
# Data from March 1958 through April 1974 have been obtained by C. David Keeling
# of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) and were obtained from the
# Scripps website (
# The estimated uncertainty in the annual mean is the standard deviation
# of the differences of annual mean values determined independently by
# NOAA/ESRL and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
# NOTE: In general, the data presented for the last year are subject to change,
# depending on recalibration of the reference gas mixtures used, and other quality
# control procedures. Occasionally, earlier years may also be changed for the same
# reasons.  Usually these changes are minor.
# CO2 expressed as a mole fraction in dry air, micromol/mol, abbreviated as ppm
# year     mean      unc
  1959   315.97     0.12
  1960   316.91     0.12
  1961   317.64     0.12
  1962   318.45     0.12
  1963   318.99     0.12
  1964   319.62     0.12
  1965   320.04     0.12
  1966   321.38     0.12
  1967   322.16     0.12
  1968   323.04     0.12
  1969   324.62     0.12
  1970   325.68     0.12
  1971   326.32     0.12
  1972   327.45     0.12
  1973   329.68     0.12
  1974   330.18     0.12
  1975   331.11     0.12
  1976   332.04     0.12
  1977   333.83     0.12
  1978   335.40     0.12
  1979   336.84     0.12
  1980   338.75     0.12
  1981   340.11     0.12
  1982   341.45     0.12
  1983   343.05     0.12
  1984   344.65     0.12
  1985   346.12     0.12
  1986   347.42     0.12
  1987   349.19     0.12
  1988   351.57     0.12
  1989   353.12     0.12
  1990   354.39     0.12
  1991   355.61     0.12
  1992   356.45     0.12
  1993   357.10     0.12
  1994   358.83     0.12
  1995   360.82     0.12
  1996   362.61     0.12
  1997   363.73     0.12
  1998   366.70     0.12
  1999   368.38     0.12
  2000   369.55     0.12
  2001   371.14     0.12
  2002   373.28     0.12
  2003   375.80     0.12
  2004   377.52     0.12
  2005   379.80     0.12
  2006   381.90     0.12
  2007   383.79     0.12
  2008   385.60     0.12
  2009   387.43     0.12
  2010   389.90     0.12
  2011   391.65     0.12
  2012   393.85     0.12
  2013   396.52     0.12
  2014   398.65     0.12
  2015   400.83     0.12
  2016   404.21     0.12

Friday, March 17, 2017

Medication Adherence: A Call for Action

Medication Adherence: A Call for Action

US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2014 Mar 9.
Published in final edited form as:
Am Heart J. 2011 Sep; 162(3): 412–424.doi:  10.1016/j.ahj.2011.06.007

  • Half of the 3.2 billion annual prescriptions dispensed in the United States are not taken as prescribed.
  • Cost is 100-300 billion dollars
  • cost estimates for non-adherence range from $100-300 billion each year, and include both direct and indirect costs.
  • total medical is 3 trillion dollars
  • 17% gnp
  • 83 other
  • 14.6 T$ other, 3T$ Health care

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

Sea Temperature & CO2 Levels

"Figure 1. Average Global Sea Surface Temperature, 1880-2015",,,
Source: EPA's Climate Change Indicators in the United States:,,,
"Data source: NOAA, 2016",,,
Web update: August 2016,,,
Units: temperature anomaly (°F),,,

Year,Annual anomaly,Lower 95% confidence interval,Upper 95% confidence interval

===== extra data ==========
 See for additional details.
# Data from March 1958 through April 1974 have been obtained by C. David Keeling
# of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) and were obtained from the
# Scripps website (
# The estimated uncertainty in the annual mean is the standard deviation
# of the differences of annual mean values determined independently by
# NOAA/ESRL and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
# NOTE: In general, the data presented for the last year are subject to change, 
# depending on recalibration of the reference gas mixtures used, and other quality
# control procedures. Occasionally, earlier years may also be changed for the same
# reasons.  Usually these changes are minor.
# CO2 expressed as a mole fraction in dry air, micromol/mol, abbreviated as ppm
# year     mean      unc
  1959   315.97     0.12
  1960   316.91     0.12
  1961   317.64     0.12
  1962   318.45     0.12
  1963   318.99     0.12
  1964   319.62     0.12
  1965   320.04     0.12
  1966   321.38     0.12
  1967   322.16     0.12
  1968   323.04     0.12
  1969   324.62     0.12
  1970   325.68     0.12
  1971   326.32     0.12
  1972   327.45     0.12
  1973   329.68     0.12
  1974   330.18     0.12
  1975   331.11     0.12
  1976   332.04     0.12
  1977   333.83     0.12
  1978   335.40     0.12
  1979   336.84     0.12
  1980   338.75     0.12
  1981   340.11     0.12
  1982   341.45     0.12
  1983   343.05     0.12
  1984   344.65     0.12
  1985   346.12     0.12
  1986   347.42     0.12
  1987   349.19     0.12
  1988   351.57     0.12
  1989   353.12     0.12
  1990   354.39     0.12
  1991   355.61     0.12
  1992   356.45     0.12
  1993   357.10     0.12
  1994   358.83     0.12
  1995   360.82     0.12
  1996   362.61     0.12
  1997   363.73     0.12
  1998   366.70     0.12
  1999   368.38     0.12
  2000   369.55     0.12
  2001   371.14     0.12
  2002   373.28     0.12
  2003   375.80     0.12
  2004   377.52     0.12
  2005   379.80     0.12
  2006   381.90     0.12
  2007   383.79     0.12
  2008   385.60     0.12
  2009   387.43     0.12
  2010   389.90     0.12
  2011   391.65     0.12
  2012   393.85     0.12
  2013   396.52     0.12
  2014   398.65     0.12
  2015   400.83     0.12
  2016   404.21     0.12

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